Средневековый Диснейленд

В мире не так много мест, где можно почувствовать себя провалившимся в другое время или даже другое изменение. И еще меньше таких мест расположено в удобной транспортной доступности. Одно из них, определенно, гора Святого Михаила (Mont Saint-Michel) на севере Франции. Хотя для того, чтобы почувствовать это волшебное перемещение во времени и пространстве, придется встать пораньше.








Гора Сен-Мишель (Mont Saint-Michel) — это скальный массив, который торчит из мелкой одноименной бухты на границе регионов Бретань и Нормандия. То есть сейчас формально она относится именно к Нормандии, но бретонцы привыкли считать ее своей. Просто речка Куэнон, по которой проходит граница между Бретанью и Нормандией, несколько десятилетий назад предательски изменила русло (всего-то на несколько десятков метров) и теперь впадает в море чуть левее Сен-Мишеля. Такое вот коварство природы.













Согласно церковной легенде, идея построить на горе монастырь пришла в начале восьмого века монаху Оберу, которого к этому сподвиг ни много ни мало сам Архангел Михаил. По тогдашним временам предприятие это было непростое — дело в том, что гора эта время от времени бывает полностью отрезанной от суши прибывающей с приливом водой. Но даже когда вода уходит, под ногами оказывается вязкая смесь глины с песком, по которой даже ходить бывает непросто — что уж говорить о том, чтобы перевозить тяжелые грузы.













Постепенно небольшая церковь на скале разрослась до целого аббатства, вокруг него вырос маленький город, который окружил себя нешуточными укреплениями. Постепенно застроенной оказалась фактически вся скала, так что сегодня издалека гора уже не видна из-за многочисленных построек, отчего весь Сен-Мишель выглядит одним гигантским сооружением. В свое время именно это место послужило источником вдохновения для английского писателя Толкиена, когда он писал свою эпопею «Властелин Колец», — город на горе Минас-Тирит это просто увеличенная в размерах фантазией автора гора Святого Михаила.






Строительство здесь велось на протяжении почти 1000 лет, так что для любителей истории архитектуры это просто сокровище. Например, как считается, именно здесь была впервые опробована технология строительства сводов (когда камни или кирпичи сходятся дугами к центру, распределяя нагрузку), которая стала потом визитной карточкой готических соборов. Некоторые проекты так и не были реализованы. Например, на верхних ярусах есть зал с широким проходом, ведущим в пустоту. Проход, слава богу, загорожен прочным стеклом, и, став у него, можно мысленно вообразить, как медленно, но верно здесь поднимается еще одна башня.








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